Entre ser un estadista o un bellaco

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El poder político ha sido desde tiempos inmemoriales el precio que los pueblos han estado dispuestos a pagar a cambio de que les garanticen paz y seguridad. Samuel Huntington, el célebre académico y cientista político de Harvard, decía que los gobiernos se clasifican en fuertes y débiles. Y que no hay algo más peligroso que los gobiernos débiles o los hombres débiles con poder.

Un gobierno fuerte es un gobierno con legitimidad política, pero también con legitimidad moral. Esto último hace que un gobierno sea respetado, y de ese respeto podría surgir el cariño. ¡Qué privilegio y recompensa más grande para un hombre público que ser respetado, y su gloria, la de ser querido! Y nosotros, los gobernados, como no quisiéramos querer y ante todo respetar a los que nos gobiernan. A cambio, les otorgamos, a través del consenso de la mayoría, el poder, el gobierno y la responsabilidad de que nos protejan, y ojalá nos conduzcan a la prosperidad colectiva.

Es que los votantes al entregarles el poder a los gobernantes les otorgamos la autoridad: la facultad de mandar y castigar. Y para esto último, la facultad del empleo exclusivo de la coerción, el denominado “monopolio de la violencia”. Pero esa facultad sólo debiera recaer en un estadista, en un gobernante ético, experimentado y prudente. Personas que administren “el poder” con ecuanimidad y justicia, con respeto a los ciudadanos, sus instituciones y a sus leyes.

Nada de esto se ha visto en la conducta, o más bien inconducta, del actual ministro de Gobierno recientemente. Actuando como un agente provocador –arrogante e insolente– pensó que la mejor manera de no responder a la inquisición parlamentaria por el abusivo secuestro de la expresidenta Jeanine Áñez, era acudir al abuso verbal, al ataque artero, calificando a los parlamentarios de “golpistas, criminales y narcotraficantes”. Equivocó el ágora de la democracia con una recova.

De los hombres de Estado a los que se les confió el ministerio de gobierno, y por tanto la administración de la paz y la seguridad pública, quizá el más capaz e ilustrado, fue al Dr. Wálter Guevara Arze. Esto durante el primer gobierno de Hernán Siles Zuazo (1956-1960), quien fue el segundo presidente postrevolucionario que tuvo la ingrata, pero fundamental responsabilidad de estabilizar la economía nacional tras los efectos traumatizantes de la reforma agraria y la nacionalización de las minas privadas.

Don Hernán era muy diferente en carácter a su predecesor, Víctor Paz Estenssoro. Hombre sencillo y popular, Siles tomó la conducción de la Revolución y triunfó combatiendo en las calles de La Paz. Quiso imprimir un sello personal, humanista, gandhiano a la revolución y pacificar Bolivia. Descartó el Cadillac blindado que usaba Paz Estenssoro, para trasladarse en su Ford “Chakur” particular, sin escolta, y caminaba las calles. Hombre afable, decidió liberar a los presos políticos y cerrar los campos de concentración. Pero a la vez, con su joven ministro de economía y dirigente obrero, Jorge Tamayo Ramos, se impuso aplicar un plan de estabilización seco y duro, que impuso fuertes sacrificios a la ya muy debilitada economía popular.

Cuentan que el Dr. Paz Estenssoro, embajador en Londres en ese tiempo, llamó al presidente Siles y le advirtió que la oposición confundiría su bondad con debilidad y que ello podría ensangrentar su gobierno. Y así fue. La oposición falangista se lanzó a las calles para derrocar a Siles y un 19 de abril de 1959 fracasó la revuelta falangista con el suicidio de su líder Oscar Únzaga de la Vega y la masacre del Cuartel Sucre, donde fueron emboscados los jóvenes falangistas que habían acudido a recoger armamento.

Siles Zuazo y Únzaga de la Vega eran paceños muy parecidos, y estoy seguro que Siles lloró en silencio esa tragedia. A todo esto, el ministro de gobierno de entonces era nada menos que el Dr. Guevara Arze, un hombre inteligente, de amplia cultura política, firme y honesto. A él mismo le tocó tomar también la trágica y equivocada decisión de enviar a los milicianos de la localidad de Ucureña a reprimir un levantamiento falangista en Santa Cruz, que dejó una profunda herida y huella en la psiquis colectiva cruceña, que aún cargamos hasta hoy.

En una entrevista que le hizo Carlos Mesa al ya retirado expresidente Guevara Arze, a principios de los 80, Guevara opinó que la violencia política y la represión de los primeros años de la revolución, ejercida por Claudio San Román, fue innecesaria. No dijo nada de la violencia que le tocó ejercer durante su gestión como ministro de gobierno de Siles. Estoy seguro que, en el fondo, Guevara llegó a la misma conclusión. Él cargó con esa cruz el resto de su ilustre vida.

Si a un estadista de la talla de Guevara Arze, el manejo del ministerio de gobierno y el empleo de la violencia de Estado le marcó tanto la vida ¿qué podemos decir del peligro que entraña entregarle la responsabilidad de la paz interna y la seguridad ciudadana a un individuo que, convocado al Parlamento a rendir cuentas, promueve la violencia mediante una orgía verbal de insultos y provocación, mostrando patéticamente su inmadurez e ignorancia de lo que es su responsabilidad, el respeto que merece su propia investidura y la dignidad que merecen los parlamentarios?

Claramente, esa conducta no es la de un hombre de Estado, sino la de un bellaco.

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